许多跑步者包括“core 稳定性”在锻炼计划中进行锻炼,但对于是否进行锻炼似乎几乎没有共识'有效,应该怎么做。所以我们've决定寻求研究指导….

When I started gathering 文章s for this piece I realised just how big a topic it was and how confusing it could easily become. There are many advocates for 核心 稳定性 with 弗雷德里克森和摩尔(2005) 描述为“essential”对于跑步者来说,这是一种观点 凯布尔(2006) who stated 核心 稳定性 is “关键的高效生物力学功能”。但是,尽管许多人支持它的作用,但其他人质疑它的有效性 莱德曼(2010) 非常反对

“Core 稳定性 exercises are no more effective than, and will 不 prevent injury more than, any other forms of exercise or physical therapy.”

因此,为了理解观点和研究的海洋,我决定首先只关注两个问题– will 核心 稳定性 training improve 跑步 performance and does it help in preventing injury?

是否核心训练 improve 跑步 performance?

您'd想像这样的事物的普及 计划日 and strong views of researchers like Fredercison and Moore (2005) that there would be conclusive research proving 核心 稳定性 helps performance. Sadly you'd be wrong.

关于跑步者的研究很少,甚至有不同的结论。

Stanton等。 (2004年) examined the effect of Swiss Ball training on 核心 稳定性 and 跑步 economy (a measure of how efficient you are as a runner). They concluded that while 核心 稳定性 可能 improve there was no significant change in performance or 跑步 economy. The study had a number of methodological limitations, including just 22 subjects all of which were male teenagers.

佐藤和莫卡(2009) examined the effect of 核心训练 on 'lower extremity 稳定性' and performance when 跑步 5km. Subjects did 核心 work 4 days a week for 6 weeks. They found a significant improvement in 5km 跑步 speed but no change in 稳定性. Runners in the 核心训练 group improved their time by an average of 47 seconds while the control group (who didn't do 核心 work) improved by just 17 seconds. While this might seem positive, once again the study has a host of limitations. There was a great deal of heterogeneity between the 核心训练 and control groups. What I mean by this is they had very different characteristics. The 核心 group were (on average) younger, slower, heavier 跑步者 who had a lower weekly mileage and scored less on 稳定性 tests. 您 would expect a larger training effect on slower 跑步者 who have done less mileage and this could account for the slightly greater improvement in performance. Only 20 subjects completed the study, this combined with heterogeneity between groups means it'很难从这项研究中得出任何结论。

A number of other studies have been done on 核心 稳定性 and athletic performance but most of these aren'赛跑者。分析研究时的一个关键问题是它是否适用于'我关心吗?如果答案是否定的,则在这种情况下,该研究的用途有限。

Will 核心 稳定性 training help prevent 跑步 injuries?

伤害预防研究 在跑步者中令人沮丧地没有定论,它's fair to say there are very few methods that have a high quality evidence base. 核心 training shares this burden.

The challenge is that 跑步 injuries are often multifactorial and have a host of potential causes. Improving 核心 稳定性 could be one aspect but studies showing a direct link between improving 核心 稳定性 and reduction in injury rates are sadly lacking. While papers like 凯布尔(2006) and 弗雷德里克森和摩尔(2005) 可能 recommend 核心 稳定性 training for 伤害预防 they provide little evidence to support this claim and instead quote studies that support the principles of 核心 work rather than show a direct connection between a stronger 核心 and less injuries.

Leetun等。 (2004年) 研究了140名受试者,其中包括大学间篮球运动员和田径运动员。他们发现做过的运动员 髋关节外展和外旋中的持续性损伤明显更强。这可能表明,绑架或向外旋转臀部的更强壮的肌肉(例如臀肌) 可能 防止受伤。当我们考虑 弗雷德里克森(2000) which demonstrated that strengthening glutes helped 跑步者 with ITBS. However this is a measure of strength 不 necessarily 核心 稳定性 per se. It doesn'告诉你健身球或'the plank'会减少受伤的风险。

The specifics on what to do for 核心 work and how to do it is a massive topic in its own right and one I will be looking at soon. 西西克(2011) examined some of the literature on 核心 稳定性 and concluded,

“To the author's knowledge, the literature does 不 demonstrate that one type of 核心训练 is more effective than others in terms of prevention”

所以'也许我们可以说不't know if 核心 work will prevent injuries in 跑步者 and if it does there is no consensus on what exactly we should be doing.

结论

研究没有 't appear to support the use of 核心 稳定性 to improve performance or reduce injury risk in 跑步者. 核心 稳定性 is often promoted as 必要 for all 跑步者, as with many things it'一种运动的可能性很小 大家 should be doing. It 可能 be that for a selection of 跑步者 with known 稳定性 issues that 核心 work will be of benefit but from the literature it certainly can't be recommended as a must for all 跑步者. There is research that has tried to identify who is most likely to benefit from 核心 稳定性 training and we will looking into it as part of this 核心 稳定性 series.

另一个明智的问题是该研究是否显示出对另一种方法的更多支持?

在提高性能的情况下,文献表明阻力训练可能是更好的方法。有 证明它可以改善经济运行,尽管显示运行时间更快。 Sato和Mokha(2009)的主题每周工作4次– you'd通过这段时间跑步,更有可能提高跑步性能!它的关键就在于此,而阻力训练可能会帮助您 '通过使用精心设计的跑步程序并实际跑步而不是坐在健身球上,很可能会提高跑步性能!约翰·费尼(John Feeney)为我们提供了有关如何 从培训中获得最大收益。

For preventing injury 核心 稳定性 work 可能 help those with 稳定性 issues but identifying this yourself isn'这很容易,有种思路表明,无论如何,跑步的核心都会适应和增强。文学没有'支持减少伤害风险的一种关键方法,但是经验和跑步者过度使用伤害的普遍性告诉我们,最明智的方法是逐渐增加里程– 必要 just don't over do it!

最后的想法:研究是我们推理过程的重要组成部分,但并非全部。在这种情况下,它会提出与回答一样多的问题。如果您目前正在进行核心工作,并且对您有所帮助,我建议您坚持使用。同样,如果你'已经由合格的卫生专业人员进行了评估,并推荐您,然后您'也许更有可能从中受益。但是如果你're wondering what approaches are best to improve performance and reduce injury risk there are more evidence based options available that are more likely to be effective. One thing I can say with some certainty is that 核心 稳定性 is often sold as a cure-all for everything and the evidence simply doesn't support that.

核心 稳定性 training as a topic is a confusing one and we haven'甚至探讨了其在伤害治疗中的作用或是否'the 核心' exists as we understand it. This is the first of a series on 核心 by 运行生理and we hope to provide more guidance on these issues and what types of training 可能 be beneficial to 跑步者 in future 文章s.

 

11条评论

  1. 汤姆(Tom)的出色文章,得出的结论和令人钦佩的最后注释。作为2000年初学习的人’s at the height of 核心 稳定性 mania, and proceeded to base 5 years of successful personal training on the rationale it taught me, my natural reaction when I first heard later schools of functional training dismiss it was to get a little defensive…可能出于恐惧比什么都重要。但是,正如您的文章所显示的,我们并没有关闭它的相关性,我们只是指出,像福音书那样卖给我们的东西’实际上没有基于研究的证据来支持它。我个人认为这是一个更好的地方,因为它可以让您打开更多的视野。一如既往的理疗& exercise, it’很少是黑白的,今天看来“fact”明天将离真相仅一步之遥。

    • “一如既往的理疗& exercise, it’很少是黑白的,今天看来“fact”明天将离真相仅一步之遥。”
      马特非常明智的话!完全同意!

  2. ‘Core’ training is a generalisation. I would break this down into: (i) 稳定性 –身体在负荷下能否保持理想的形态,提高运动效率,促进正确的形态; (ii)核心实力– the ability of the body to sustain the correct form given intensive or extensive load (force or time); (iii) 流动性 – the bodies free range of movement. Research studies tend to focus on athletes that start from a high base level of fitness and hence 可能 不 be representative of average Joe Public. 受伤 generally occur when movement patterns extend beyond the subjects normal working range. 通过 analogy, improving strength and 流动性 over greater range will reduce the propensity for injury. 核心 will stay 核心 to the exercise regimes I prescribe.

  3. 核心 training is really important, but the context that is usually applied is one of a static isometric model. This 可能 help some people – hypermobile, excessive ant pelvic tilt etc but 不 大家. We need to look at the function of the abdominals in all 3 planes during the 跑步 cycle. As the front foot hits the ground (heel, forefoot, toes) the pelvis will anteriorly rotate creating an eccentric lengthening of the anterior abdominals, in combination with a lengthening in the transverse and frontal planes, which creates the load for the next phase of gait. 核心 training needs to have these principles applied (in a 跑步 scenario) to be effective for 运行。 Planks are 不 运行。
    由于单个变量太多,运行历史记录等等,因此很难在RCT中进行研究
    对于大多数跑步者来说,改善胸廓和臀部的伸展度会对腹部产生更好的偏心负荷– better 核心

    • 嗨markphysio
      只是为了清除一些东西–该帖子似乎表明几乎没有RCT“core training”在那些跑步的人中学习。但是,这里没有提到大量研究运动核心的重要性的研究。核心旨在停止运动,而不是创造运动。这就是为什么使用中立脊柱进行等距锻炼有益于核心稳定性,并且可能还限制了跑步者的受伤次数,尽管在研究中没有发现这一点。在某些文献中,核心(在此发布中未定义)定义为两个球窝关节之间的区域。运动专家(例如Gray Cook和Stuart McGill)将核心定位为“stability”和肩膀和臀部作为关节“mobility”。在移动过程中,整个核心合同– 不 specific muscles such as the tranversus abdomens which are identified by some as the be-all end-all of 核心 稳定性 –这是非常不真实的。整个芯部共同收缩可稳定底座,球窝关节可通过该底座产生运动,而无需“energy leaks”。这个比喻是“You can’不要用独木舟射击大炮”. This is why isometric 核心 exercises are suggested in literature to be important for 核心 稳定性 and the efficient generation of movement.

      • 核心是为了停止运动?这个概念对任何运动或活动都没有意义。从能量角度看,等距收缩可以去除肌肉和肌腱的弹性成分,因此会增加能量需求,您是否想在26.2英里内这样做?
        If you clarify 核心 between the ball and socket joints you are saying that the thoracic spine is also included , isometric contractions will stop this area moving therefore you dissipate force driven up and down effecting both upper and lower limbs.
        如果您正在谈论体育运动,请查看有关步态,投掷和高尔夫的研究。力是由下而上和自上而下驱动的,我们需要运动以利用这些力来执行特定的动作。如果您的区域是‘旨在阻止运动’这种力量在哪里?
        身体必须移动

  4. 我们考虑的大部分“core” training –木板,缠鸟,剁碎等–广告,促销,处方和销售广告,就好像它是提高绩效,预防多种潜在伤害和/或康复的有效药物。
    如果制药公司对这种药物也有同样的主张,并且缺乏足够的科学依据,那么它将被起诉并处以数十亿美元的罚款。
    It’新的锻炼前静态拉伸–一代人,每个人都会发现’充其量是在浪费时间。
    There is one great exercise that replicates and stresses 核心 稳定性 demands specific to 跑步 absolutely perfectly. 所有 the best 跑步者 have always done it. It’s called “running.”身体在适当的剂量下承受着这种压力,就做了这种神奇的事情“adapting”对此。同时,策划人在木板方面变得更好。
    其余的都是理论上和假设上的–但是如果您需要出售服务或程序,或者您是被迫做的教练“比赛所做的一切” –我们最终要花费大量的精力和精力“core training”以一万种不同的方式没关系,这些压板机的性能没有明显改善,伤害率也没有任何可测量的下降–听起来是如此重要和不可或缺,我们将一如既往地继续游戏并付费。

  5. 对于任何运动员来说,以适当的形式平行进行的下蹲动作非常有效,包括所有核心肌肉…..为什么不让事情简单,也不能使腿部力量…………。花太多时间做太多运动…什么时候可以保持如此简单…………………..一篇很棒的文章,尽管强调了核心工作已被过分强调…..我经常为了金钱上的利益……………..普拉提旨在帮助人们从光盘问题中恢复……………如何将其变成力量。/已经很强壮和健康的运动员的健身训练计划超出了我的范围……上面的文章正确地强调了缺乏好处的证据。 http://www.physiotherapiststralee.ie

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